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Accounting & Auditing in The United Kingdom

Accounting & Auditing in The United Kingdom

Annual Accounts

Company may qualify for an audit exemption if it has at least 2 of the following:

  • Completion of abbreviated accounts/ unfillet accounts/ full set accounts
  • Filling the accounts
  • Our expert accountants help you to save huge cost instead of hiring full time accounting staff in UK
  • Reduce daunting task of preparing set of Financial statement and filling the statutory account
  • Let us worry for you all accounting burdens so you can concentrate on your business success
  • Support registration VAT number
  • Accounting fee is calculated based on the number of transactions


Amount (Transactions) Fee
Below 30 US$ 865
30 to 59 US$ 936
60 to 99 US$ 982
100 to 119 US$ 1,027
120 to 199 US$ 1,092
200 to 249 US$ 1,261
250 to 349 US$ 1,456
350 to 449 US$ 1,963
450 and above To be confirmed

Auditing Services

Company may qualify for an audit exemption if it has at least 2 of the following:
  • An annual turnover of no more than £10.2 million
  • Assets worth no more than £5.1 million
  • 50 or fewer employees on average


1. What if you don’t receive a ‘Notice to deliver a Company Tax Return’ from HMRC?
You still must tell HMRC your company is liable for Corporation Tax. You must do this within 12 months of the end of your Corporation Tax accounting period. If you don’t, your company or organisation may be charged a penalty. HMRC calls this a ‘failure to notify’ penalty.
2. When is the deadline for filing the first account?

The first account must be filed in 21 months after registration with Companies House.

3. How many types of primary business Tax in UK ?
  • Income Tax
  • National Insurance
  • Corporation Tax
  • Capital Gains Tax
  • VAT

Read more: 

4. What are the penalties for keeping inadequate business records?

HMRC may charge a penalty of up to £3,000 per tax year for a failure to keep records or for keeping inadequate records.

5. When you must register for VAT?

You must register for VAT with HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) if your business’ VAT taxable turnover is more than £85,000.

Read more: 

6. What is a dormant company?

A company or association may be ‘dormant’ if it’s not doing business (‘trading’) and doesn’t have any other income, for example, investments.

7. Does the dormant company need to file account to Companies House?

Yes. You must file your confirmation statement (previously annual return) and annual accounts with Companies House even if your limited company.

8. What is my unique tax reference (UTR) number in UK?

Your unique taxpayer reference , is a unique code that identifies either an individual taxpayer or an individual company. UK UTR numbers are ten digits long, and may include the letter ‘K’ at the end.

Unique taxpayer reference numbers are used by HMRC to keep track of taxpayers, and is the ‘key’ that the taxman uses to identify all of the different moving parts related to your UK tax affairs.

Read more:

9. The dormant company need to file account to Companies House?
Yes. You must file your confirmation statement (previously annual return) and annual accounts with Companies House even if your limited company
10. Do overseas companies need to send accounting documents to Companies House in UK after registration?

In most cases, overseas companies are required to send accounting documents to Companies House in UK. The accounting documents an overseas company delivers will depend on the following circumstances,

  • The company is required to prepare and disclose accounting documents under parent law (the law of the country in which the company is incorporated)
  • If it is required to prepare and disclose accounting documents under parent law is it an EEA company. An EEA company is an overseas company governed by the law of a country or territory in the European Economic Area (EEA)

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11. Internal audit and external audit in the UK?

In the UK, internal and external audits serve different functions and adhere to different standards:

1. Internal Audit

  • Objective: Focuses on evaluating and improving the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes within an organization.
  • Scope: Broad and varies, covering areas like compliance, risk management, and operational efficiency.
  • Functionality: Internal auditors are either employees or contractors for the organization, reporting functionally to the audit committee and administratively to management.
  • Frequency: Conducted throughout the year based on a risk-based audit plan.

2. External Audit

  • Objective: Provides an independent opinion on the financial statements, ensuring they are free from material misstatement and comply with statutory and accounting standards.
  • Scope: Narrowly focused on financial records and statutory compliance.
  • Functionality: External auditors are independent of the organization, appointed by shareholders, and must strictly maintain their independence.
  • Frequency: Typically conducted annually, culminating in an annual audit report.

3. Key Differences

  • Independence: External auditors require strict independence; internal auditors have functional independence within the organization.
  • Reporting: Internal auditors report to both the audit committee and management to improve business processes, while external auditors report to shareholders, focusing on transparency and regulatory compliance.
  • Purpose: Internal audits aim to enhance internal controls and business efficiency; external audits validate financial integrity for stakeholder assurance.

These distinctions ensure that both types of audits work in tandem to enhance organizational accountability and efficiency while meeting regulatory requirements.

12. What is the function of accounting in business in the UK?

In the UK, accounting serves several essential functions in business operations:

  1. Financial Reporting: Accounting ensures systematic recording of transactions, leading to the creation of financial statements that summarize a company’s financial status and performance.
  2. Regulatory Compliance: It helps businesses comply with statutory regulations, including tax laws and financial reporting standards (UK GAAP or IFRS), ensuring accuracy in tax filings and other mandatory reports.
  3. Decision Making: Financial data derived from accounting assists in making informed business decisions, helping managers with budget allocation, investment choices, and strategic planning.
  4. Budgeting and Forecasting: Accounting is crucial for preparing budgets and forecasts, which predict future financial conditions and guide effective resource management.
  5. Performance Evaluation: It enables the evaluation of the efficiency and profitability of different departments or projects within the business, aligning performance with strategic goals.
  6. Risk Management: By analyzing financial ratios and trends, accounting helps identify financial risks, facilitating proactive management to safeguard the company’s interests.
  7. Audit and Assurance: Organized financial records support audit processes, enhancing the credibility of the business with stakeholders.
  8. Cost Management: Effective accounting aids in tracking and controlling costs, optimizing pricing and resource use to improve profitability.

Overall, accounting underpins financial transparency, compliance, and strategic management in UK businesses, forming the backbone of financial health and operational effectiveness.

13. What is the difference between Tax Planning and Tax Management in the UK?

In the UK, tax planning and tax management serve different functions in handling taxes:

1. Tax Planning

Tax planning is about strategically arranging financial affairs to minimize tax liability. This proactive process involves:

  • Utilizing tax-efficient investments and allowances.
  • Timing income and expenses to optimize tax benefits.
  • Structuring business operations to reduce tax obligations.

2. Tax Management

Tax management focuses on ensuring compliance with tax laws and managing administrative tasks associated with taxes. This involves:

  • Timely and accurate filing of tax returns.
  • Keeping detailed financial records.
  • Handling communications and audits from tax authorities.
  • Ensuring that all tax payments are made on schedule.

3. Key Differences:

  • Purpose: Tax planning aims to reduce future tax liabilities, whereas tax management ensures compliance with current tax laws.
  • Timing: Tax planning is a proactive, forward-looking activity; tax management is reactive, dealing with ongoing tax obligations.
  • Scope: Tax planning involves strategic financial decision-making; tax management focuses on administrative accuracy and procedural compliance.

Together, both practices ensure that an individual or business optimizes tax liability while adhering to legal requirements.

14. Can an external auditor perform an internal audit in the UK?

In the UK, it is generally discouraged for external auditors to also perform internal audit functions due to independence and conflict of interest concerns:

  • External Auditors provide an independent opinion on financial statements, which requires them to remain completely independent from the organization they audit.
  • Internal Auditors assess and enhance internal controls and governance within the organization, often working closely with it, which could compromise the independence required of an external auditor.

Mixing these roles can lead to conflicts of interest and may impair the external auditor's ability to provide an unbiased opinion. UK professional standards, upheld by bodies like the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW) and the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA), emphasize the importance of maintaining strict auditor independence, thereby generally advising against an external auditor undertaking internal audit duties.


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