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Company Formation Services - FAQs

+ General

1. What is an LLC and how does it work?

A Limited Liability Company (LLC) is a type of business structure that combines features of both a corporation and a partnership (or sole proprietorship, in the case of a single-member LLC). Here's how an LLC works:

  1. Formation: To create an LLC, you typically need to file articles of organization with the appropriate state agency and pay the required fees. The articles of organization outline the basic details of the LLC, such as its name, address, management structure, and purpose.
  2. Ownership: An LLC can have one or more owners, who are referred to as "members." Members can be individuals, other businesses, or entities like trusts. In a single-member LLC, there is only one owner.
  3. Limited Liability: One of the key benefits of an LLC is that it offers limited liability protection to its members. This means that members are generally not personally responsible for the LLC's debts and liabilities. If the LLC incurs debts or is sued, the personal assets of the members are usually protected.
  4. Management: An LLC can be managed by its members (referred to as a member-managed LLC) or by appointed managers (referred to as a manager-managed LLC). The operating agreement, a document created by the members, outlines how the LLC will be managed and operated.
  5. Pass-Through Taxation: An important feature of LLCs is pass-through taxation. Profits and losses of the LLC "pass through" to the members' individual tax returns. This means that the LLC itself does not pay federal income taxes. Instead, members report their share of the LLC's income or losses on their personal tax returns.
  6. Flexibility: LLCs offer flexibility in terms of management and operation. There are fewer formalities and requirements compared to corporations. Operating agreements can be tailored to the specific needs and preferences of the members.
  7. Annual Requirements: While LLCs offer flexibility, they do have some ongoing obligations. Many states require LLCs to file annual reports and pay annual fees. Failure to meet these requirements can result in the LLC losing its good standing.
  8. Dissolution: An LLC can be dissolved voluntarily by its members or involuntarily through legal actions or bankruptcy. The process for dissolution is typically outlined in the operating agreement or state laws.
  9. Limited Life: In some states, an LLC may have a limited lifespan unless it is specifically stated otherwise in the articles of organization or operating agreement. If a member leaves or dies, the LLC may need to be dissolved or restructured.

It's important to note that while LLCs provide many benefits, the specific rules and regulations governing them can vary from state to state. Therefore, it's essential to understand your state's requirements and consult with legal and financial professionals when forming and operating an LLC to ensure compliance with all applicable laws and regulations.

2. Do I need a foreign LLC for online business?

Whether you need a foreign LLC for your online business depends on several factors, including the nature of your business, where you live, and where your customers are located. Here are some considerations to help you determine if you need a foreign LLC for your online business:

  1. Your Location: If you operate your online business in the same state or country where you reside, you may not need a foreign LLC. In this case, you can typically form a domestic LLC in your home state or country.
  2. Business Activities: The need for a foreign LLC often arises when your online business conducts activities or has a significant presence in states or countries other than your home state or country. This presence can include having physical offices or employees, having customers or clients in other locations, or generating a substantial amount of revenue from outside your home jurisdiction.
  3. Legal Requirements: Different jurisdictions have varying rules and regulations regarding the formation of LLCs and foreign qualification. Research the laws in your jurisdiction to determine if your online business activities require foreign qualification.
  4. Taxation: Depending on where your customers are located and where your business generates income, you may have tax obligations in multiple jurisdictions. Consult with a tax professional to understand your tax obligations and whether a foreign LLC is necessary for tax compliance.
  5. Liability Protection: If you are primarily concerned with limited liability protection, forming a domestic LLC may be sufficient, as long as it offers the protection you need in your primary operating jurisdiction.
  6. Economic Nexus Laws: Some jurisdictions have implemented economic nexus laws that require businesses to collect and remit sales tax if they meet certain revenue thresholds in that jurisdiction. Your online business may trigger such requirements in states or countries other than your own, which could necessitate foreign qualification.
  7. Customer Expectations: Consider the expectations and preferences of your customers. Having a local presence, even through a foreign LLC, may instill greater trust and confidence in your business.
  8. Legal Advice: It's advisable to consult with legal and tax professionals who are familiar with the laws and regulations in your jurisdiction and the jurisdictions in which you do business. They can provide guidance tailored to your specific situation.
3. What does the S.A. stand for in a company?

Société anonyme (S.A.) is a French term that refers to a public limited company (PLC), and similar business structures exist worldwide. An S.A. is analogous to a corporation in the United States, a public limited company in the United Kingdom, or an Aktiengesellschaft (AG) in Germany.

Requirements for a Société Anonyme (S.A.)

An S.A. is subject to distinct tax regulations when compared to sole proprietorships or partnerships, and, in the case of a public S.A., it entails different accounting and auditing obligations. Furthermore, for an S.A. to be considered valid, it must fulfill specific criteria. While these criteria may vary depending on the country, most S.A.s are required to submit articles of incorporation, establish a board of directors, appoint either a managing director or a management board, institute a supervisory board, designate a statutory auditor and deputy, choose a unique name, and maintain a minimum capital amount. Typically, it is formed for a maximum duration of 99 years.

Understanding the Société Anonyme

The société anonyme is a widely adopted business structure with equivalents in various languages and countries. Regardless of the specific context, an entity designated as an S.A. provides protection for the personal assets of its owners against creditor claims, thereby incentivizing many individuals to embark on entrepreneurial ventures, as it mitigates their financial risk. Additionally, the S.A. framework facilitates meeting the capital requirements of a growing business, as it allows numerous investors to contribute varying amounts of capital as shareholders, particularly if the company opts for public ownership. Consequently, the S.A. plays a pivotal role in supporting a robust capitalist economy.

4. How to set up an offshore company?

How to set up an offshore company

Step 1 Initially, our relationship managers will ask you to provide detailed information for all shareholders and directors, including their names. You can select the level of services you need. This stage normally takes one to three working days, or a working day in urgent cases. Furthermore, give the proposed company names so that we can check the eligibility of the names in each jurisdiction’s/country’s company registry/company house.

Step 2 You settle the payment of our service fee and the official Government fee required for your selected jurisdiction/country. We accept payment by credit/debit card Visa Visa payment-discover payment-american , Paypal Paypal or by wire transfer to our HSBC bank account. HSBC bank account(Payment Guidelines).

See more: Company registration fees

Step 3 After collecting full information from you, Offshore Company Corp will send you digital versions of your corporate documents (certificate of incorporation, register of shareholders/directors, share certificate, memorandum and articles of association etc) via email. The full Offshore Company kit will be couriered to your residential address by express delivery (TNT, DHL or UPS etc).

You can open an offshore bank account for your company in Europe, Hong Kong, Singapore or any other jurisdictions where we support offshore bank accounts! You have the freedom to make international money transfers from your offshore account.

Once your offshore company formation is completed. You are ready to do international business!

5. Does the certificate of incorporation expire?

No, a certificate of incorporation expires does not terminate. It may be a changeless archive that means the arrangement and legitimate presence of a company from the date it is issued. Once a company is consolidated and the certificate of incorporation expires is issued by the pertinent government specialist, the company proceeds to exist uncertainly until it is formally broken down or struck off the enroll by the administrative body.

Key Focuses:

  • Permanent Record: The certificate of incorporation expires could be a one-time archive that does not have a termination date. It remains substantial as long as the company is dynamic and compliant with lawful prerequisites.
  • Continuous Compliance: Whereas the certificate of incorporation expires itself does not terminate, the company must comply with ongoing legitimate and administrative prerequisites, such as recording yearly returns and monetary explanations, to preserve its great standing.
  • Disintegration or Strike Off: A company may be broken down intentionally by its individuals or executives, or it may be struck off the enlist by the administrative specialist for non-compliance or other reasons, successfully finishing its legitimate presence.


  • Companies Act: The particular controls and prerequisites may change by locale, but for the most part, the standards stay the same. For instance, the Companies Act within the UK, Singapore, and numerous other nations takes after comparative rules with respect to joining and company compliance.
  • Government and Administrative Websites: To confirm particular prerequisites and points of interest, it's best to allude to the official websites of the significant government or administrative body, such as the Companies House within the UK, the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority (ACRA) in Singapore, or comparative substances in other wards.
6. What is the difference between a holding company and an investment company?

Fresh entrepreneurs oftentimes cannot tell the difference between a holding company and an investment company. While they do have a lot of similarities, holding companies and investment companies each have their distinct purposes.

A holding company is a parent business entity that holds the controlling stock or membership interests in its subsidiary companies. The cost to set up a holding company varies depending on the legal entity it is registered with, usually a corporation or an LLC. Large businesses usually set up a holding company because of multiple benefits it brings, including: Protecting assets, reducing risk and tax, no day-to-day management, etc.

An investment company, on the other hand, does not own or directly control any subsidiary companies, but rather is engaged in the business of investing in securities. Setting up an investment company is different from setting up a holding company, as they can mostly be formed as a mutual fund, a closed-ended fund, or a unit investment trusts (UIT). Furthermore, each type of investment company has its own versions, such as stock funds, bond funds, money market funds, index funds, interval funds, and exchange-traded funds (ETFs).

7. What is a corporate service provider?

A corporate provider or company provider has skills and knowledge that are necessary for every business entity at some time throughout their operation. A corporate provider makes sure that a company complies with all applicable laws and norms set forth by the local government where the business is located.

All the legal compliance requirements could be difficult for new businesses. The cost of hiring a company provider may also be prohibitive for small businesses because of the temporary nature of the position.

Typically, a corporate service provider has a section for corporate secretarial services with a group of devoted corporate secretaries. In relation to incorporation-related issues, it can also provide legal and tax advising services.

Corporate providers’ range of duties includes:

  • Establishing a private limited company under the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority (ACRA)
  • Offering a registered office and mailing address for notices and communications
  • Named Company Secretary provision
  • Upgrading of the Company's statutory records and registrations
  • Submission of any applications, notices, or returns to ACRA
  • Resolutions from Directors and Shareholders are written
  • Convocation and documentation preparation
  • Annual Return filing with ACRA
  • Sending reminders about the due dates for filing
  • Helping consumers open bank accounts and setting up a meeting with a bank officer
8. What are the 4 key steps in developing a business plan?

1. Executive summary

Even though it is one of the shorter parts of a business plan, you should devote the most effort to it.

No matter how many pages your business plan is, whether it is five or thirty, the executive summary section must summarize everything in the plan in only two pages. This section draws a lot of attention because the reader may simply glance at it before deciding whether to continue or stop reading.

2. Marketing plan

Competitive analysis section

Reading the competitive analysis section helps comprehend enterprises’ competition.

About five competitors should be listed here, along with their advantages and disadvantages. When examining your competition, some points to consider include:

  • Operating time
  • Accessibility
  • Pricing
  • Return policy
  • Budget for marketing (or a rough estimate)
  • Reputation of a brand
  • Policy for product delivery (is it provided free, at cost, or not at all?)
  • Additional goods and services
  • Purchasing number (which may equate to lower or higher costs).

Specific marketing actions

Your marketing action plan, which is utilized to put your business idea into practice, develops the precise marketing actions.

 Make a note of the implementation costs for each of the five marketing phases (the sum of which will be your marketing budget), if enterprises can accomplish each step on their own or if they require help, and the projected sales (which when added together, become the sales forecast).

3. Key management bios

Include a one-page biography for each of the important figures in your company.

These biographies should be written in a way that shows you've "been there, done that," and you know how to do it again. You want to show that you possess both the technical know-how and the leadership abilities required for the job. Mention your plans for bringing on more team members to fill any potential experience or skill shortages.

4. Financial plan

The financial statements are one of the last components in your business plan. The business plan is demonstrated to be practical in the parts of products and services, marketing, operations, and personnel, but it is proven to be profitable in the financial area.

9. Why do you need to hire a corporate service provider for your business?

Corporate businesses offer accounting and tax services in addition to assisting new business owners in setting up their operations legally. You can save time and money by working with an expert corporate service provider. Here are 2 main reasons why you need to hire a corporate service provider for your business:


Incorporating a business can be time-consuming. It is a protracted process that needs both time and knowledge. Furthermore, if you complete everything by hand, you risk skipping a step in the registration process. It is generally advisable to contract out this responsibility to a corporate service provider in order to produce the papers flawlessly. A corporate service provider has the knowledge and experience required to register your corporation under legislation.

Understanding of current tax laws

The governments always work to improve their laws and regulations to keep up with the evolving economy. Even if a business owner can always handle the necessary documentation, it can be challenging to keep up with the constantly evolving regulatory requirements. The professionals in a corporate service keep track of all such changes through the press or courts. A business owner only needs to select a suitable company that offers the needed corporate service providers.

10. When do you need to engage a corporate service provider?

The process of starting a new business and taking on any associated risks with the intention of turning a profit is what we typically refer to as entrepreneurship. However, when conducting business, an entrepreneur or a corporation must face a number of difficulties.

You need to engage a corporate service provider for the majority of company formations and lessen many of the difficulties faced by business owners of all stripes. Typically, these difficulties take the shape of one or more of the following elements:

1) Limited expertise & experience

There will always be updated procedures, new policies, and new laws and regulations. CSP focuses on daily investigation, examination, and analysis of all of this data. These regular activities prepare CSP to be highly specialized in processing all the required paperwork that complies with legal requirements. Do you believe it will be as simple to remember, to create all the necessary documentation, and to put into practice as a corporate service provider?

2) Charges for conducting business

A smooth firm business operation depends on several various functions, including administrative, human resource, accounting, and many more. Other expenses include those for IT and office supplies, technology subscriptions, and other expenses that, regrettably, do not result in any revenue for the organization. The majority of the crucial positions and tasks in a firm are covered by CSP. Consider hiring one individual to fill each position, such as administrative, human resources, and accounting. Do you believe these costs will be more affordable than engaging a corporate service provider?

3) Short Period

No matter what sector a company operates in, it is critical that it devote time to research, analysis, and the development of a revenue-boosting plan. Do you believe you have enough time to grow your company and bring in enough money?

11. How does a corporate services provider help you?

In order to help any business with its administrative, human resource, and financial tasks, the government has granted a professional license to a corporate service provider (CSP), a business organization with professional qualifications. The corporate service provider helps you make sure that these businesses' operations adhere to the most recent laws and regulations set forth by the relevant government authority.

12. Why is business consulting important?

A widespread misconception regarding business consulting services is that they are primarily used by large, well-established businesses. In actuality, business consulting is important regardless of the sizes of businesses. Expert guidance and knowledge on a range of subjects are offered by consultants, enabling businesses to operate more successfully.

Let's take a closer look at the significance of management consulting for small businesses by taking a look at the typical functions that management consultants play. We'll find that hiring corporate management consultancy has a number of advantages.

The ability of a business consultant to make reliable recommendations about how to move your company ahead is ultimately the most significant advantage of engaging one.

Business consulting effectively assists organizations in improving performance and efficiency. When choosing the direction their firms should go, the majority of business owners think about hiring business advisors. The majority of business owners employ consultants to spot growth issues, gain insight into a particular market, boost employee productivity, alter business paradigms, identify new business objectives, train staff, fire ineffective business strata, resurrect stale but promising business opportunities, and influence decision-makers. The first thing a consultant does when they join a firm or a client is find out what their goals are. After that, the consultant discovers the opportunities for growth and makes plans accordingly.

13. What are the 4 types of business plans?

Operations Management

Motivational speaker for CEOs Mack Story stated on LinkedIn that operational strategies are about how things should proceed. There are established guidelines for completing the mission.

This kind of planning often outlines how the business is run on a daily basis. Operational plans are frequently referred to as ongoing or single-use plans. Plans for one-time events and activities are called single usage plans (such as a single marketing campaign). Ongoing plans comprise policies for tackling issues, rules for particular laws, and procedures for a step-by-step process for achieving specific goals.

Planning Strategically

"Strategic plans are all about why things need to happen." It involves long-term, big-picture thinking. Casting a vision and establishing a mission are the initial steps at the highest level.

A high-level perspective of the entire company is a component of strategic planning. It serves as the organization's fundamental framework and will guide long-term choices. The time frame for strategic planning can range from the subsequent two years to the following ten years. A strategic plan should include a vision, purpose, and values statement.

Planning for emergencies

When something unexpected occurs or a change is required, contingency plans are created. These plans are sometimes referred to as a particular kind of planning by business experts.

Planning for contingencies might be useful in situations where a change is necessary. Although managers should account for changes when engaging in any of the major planning activities, contingency planning is crucial in situations where changes cannot be anticipated. Contingency planning becomes more crucial to engage in and comprehend as the business environment becomes more complex.

Feasibility Business Plans

Two key considerations concerning a potential business endeavor are addressed by a feasibility business plan: who, if anyone, will buy the service or product a company wishes to market, and can the venture be profitable. Feasibility business plans often have sections detailing the need for the product or service, the target market, and the necessary funding. A feasibility plan concludes with suggestions for the future.

14. How do I make a business plan?

Starting a business is a thrilling yet frequently intimidating endeavor. Your next thought is probably to ask “How do I make a business plan?” after the initial excitement of having that fantastic company idea suddenly appear in your thoughts.The best course of action is to create a business plan. Business plans help you contact investors and request for loans while also giving your company direction. Launching a business is difficult, but understanding how to write a business plan is simple.

Depending on the requirements and objectives of your firm, the particular content in your business plan will change, however a typical plan will typically have the parts listed in the following order:

  • A succinct summary
  • Description of the company
  • Market research
  • Competitive research
  • Organizational management description
  • An explanation of the goods or services
  • Marketing strategy
  • Sales approach
  • Funding information (or request for funding)
  • Financial estimates

Consider adding a table of contents or an appendix if your plan is really lengthy or complex. Anyone with a stake in your organization is, in general, in your audience. They could be clients, employees, internal team members, suppliers, and vendors in addition to prospective and current investors.

15. What are the purposes of a business plan?

There are many purposes of a business plan but the most important one is to identify, describe, and analyze a business opportunity with an eye on its technological, economic, and financial feasibility. 

The business plan also can be used when seeking collaboration or financial support, it also acts as a business card for introducing the company to others, including banks, investors, institutions, governmental bodies, or any other agents engaged.

16. What is exempt private company limited by shares?

An exempt private company limited by shares is a type of corporate structure used in some jurisdictions, particularly in the context of company law in Singapore. This term is specific to Singapore's legal framework and may have variations in other countries.

Here's a breakdown of what an exempt private company limited by shares means:

  1. Private Company Limited by Shares: This part of the term refers to the company's legal structure. A private company limited by shares is a common type of business entity where the liability of shareholders is limited to the amount they have invested in the company. Shareholders hold shares in the company, and the company's capital is divided into shares. This structure is often used by small to medium-sized businesses.
  2. Exempt Private Company: In Singapore, an exempt private company is a specific category of private company that meets certain criteria. Some of the key characteristics of an exempt private company in Singapore include:
    • Number of Shareholders: An exempt private company cannot have more than 20 shareholders. This limitation is designed to keep the company relatively small and private.
    • Restrictions on Share Transfer: The shares of an exempt private company are not freely transferable. This means that the company's constitution or shareholders' agreement may include restrictions on selling or transferring shares to outsiders without the approval of existing shareholders.
    • No Corporate Shareholders: An exempt private company cannot have another corporation as its shareholder, except for certain exempt companies, such as wholly-owned subsidiaries.
    • Annual Filing Requirements: Exempt private companies typically have reduced annual filing requirements with the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority (ACRA) in Singapore compared to larger companies.
    • Audit Exemption: They may also be eligible for audit exemption if they meet specific criteria, which can reduce compliance costs.
    • Financial Statements: While they are exempt from audit in some cases, they are still required to prepare and file financial statements.

The concept of an exempt private company limited by shares is designed to make it easier for small businesses and startups to operate in Singapore by reducing some of the regulatory and compliance burdens associated with larger companies. However, it's important to note that the specific rules and requirements may change over time, so it's essential for businesses to consult with legal and financial professionals or refer to the latest regulations when considering this corporate structure.

17. What is the difference between exempt private company and private company?

The difference between an exempt private company and a private company typically depends on the regulations and laws of a specific country. I'll provide a general overview, but it's essential to consult the laws and regulations in your jurisdiction for precise definitions and requirements.

1. Exempt Private Company (EPC):

  • An exempt private company is a classification often used in Singapore, although similar terms may exist in other jurisdictions.
  • EPCs in Singapore are private companies that meet specific criteria and are eligible for certain exemptions from regulatory requirements.
  • To qualify as an EPC in Singapore, a company must meet the following criteria:
    • It has no more than 20 shareholders, and all of them must be individuals (not corporations).
    • There are no corporate shareholders, except for specific exempt entities like wholly-owned subsidiaries.
    • It has an annual revenue of not more than SGD 5 million.
  • EPCs are eligible for various benefits, such as not needing to hold an annual general meeting, not being required to file financial statements with the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority (ACRA), and being exempt from certain audit requirements.

2. Private Company (Non-EPC):

  • A private company, in a broader sense, is a type of business entity that is privately owned and not publicly traded on a stock exchange.
  • Private companies vary in size, ownership structure, and operations. They can range from small family-owned businesses to large multinational corporations.
  • In many jurisdictions, private companies have different regulations and reporting requirements compared to public companies. These regulations are often less stringent because the shareholders are not trading their shares on public markets, and there is generally less need for transparency and public disclosure.

In summary, the key difference between an exempt private company and a private company is that an exempt private company is a specific classification in certain jurisdictions, such as Singapore, and it enjoys certain exemptions and benefits based on meeting specific criteria. A private company, on the other hand, is a broader term used to describe companies that are privately owned and not publicly traded, and the regulations and requirements for private companies can vary from one jurisdiction to another.

18. Are exempt private company exempt from audit requirements?

The audit requirements for exempt private companies (EPCs) can vary depending on the jurisdiction and its regulations. In many countries, EPCs are subject to certain exemptions or relaxed audit requirements compared to larger or public companies. However, the specifics of these exemptions can differ significantly from one jurisdiction to another.

Here's a general overview of how audit requirements for EPCs may work in some jurisdictions:

  1. Size Criteria: Many countries have size-based criteria to determine whether a company qualifies as an exempt private company. These criteria often consider factors like revenue, assets, and the number of employees.
  2. Exemption Thresholds: If a company falls below certain thresholds, it may be exempt from full-scale external audits. Instead, it might undergo a review or a less comprehensive form of audit.
  3. Financial Reporting: Even if exempt from a full audit, EPCs are usually still required to prepare financial statements in accordance with accounting standards. These statements may need to be reviewed by a qualified accountant, but a full audit may not be necessary.
  4. Disclosure Requirements: EPCs may have fewer disclosure requirements compared to larger companies. This means they may not need to disclose as much financial and non-financial information in their public filings.
  5. Private Company Status: The status of a private company can also impact its audit requirements. Private companies may have fewer regulatory obligations compared to public companies.
  6. Changes in Status: Companies that exceed the size or criteria for EPC status may be required to start complying with more stringent audit and reporting requirements.
  7. Local Regulations: Regulations vary by country, and even within countries, different regions or states may have their own rules and requirements for EPCs.

To get specific information about the audit requirements for exempt private companies in your jurisdiction, you should consult with a local accountant, financial advisor, or legal expert who is knowledgeable about the laws and regulations that apply to businesses in your area. They can provide you with the most up-to-date and accurate information regarding audit exemptions and requirements for EPCs in your specific location. Additionally, regulatory requirements can change over time, so it's important to stay informed about any updates to the laws and regulations that affect your company.

19. What is an example of a public limited company?

A public limited company, often abbreviated as PLC, is a type of business entity that is publicly traded on a stock exchange, and its shares can be bought and sold by the general public. Public limited companies are common in many countries and are often used for larger enterprises that want to raise capital by selling shares to a wide range of investors.

Here's an example of a well-known public limited company:

Company Name: Apple Inc.

Ticker Symbol: AAPL

Description: Apple Inc. is a multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, USA. It is one of the world's largest and most recognizable technology companies, known for its consumer electronics products, software, and services. Apple became a public limited company in 1980 when it conducted its initial public offering (IPO) and began trading its shares on the NASDAQ stock exchange. Since then, Apple has become one of the most valuable and influential companies globally, with a significant presence in the technology and consumer electronics industries.

Please note that the status of companies can change over time, and new public limited companies can be established, while existing ones may go private or undergo other changes in their ownership structure.

20. How many members can be in a public limited company?

The number of members in a public limited company can vary depending on the jurisdiction and the company's articles of association. In many countries, the number of public limited company minimum members usually is 2 people. 

In some jurisdictions, there may also be a maximum limit on the number of members for a public limited company. However, this limit is typically relatively high and is set to accommodate many shareholders. The specific rules and regulations regarding the number of members for a public limited company can vary from one country to another, so it's essential to consult the relevant company law or regulatory authority in your jurisdiction for precise information.

Keep in mind that public limited companies are usually formed to raise capital from the public by selling shares, so they often have a large number of shareholders compared to private limited companies, which typically have a smaller number of shareholders. Please contact us at Offshore Company Corp to be consulted about the number of shareholders. 

21. How do public limited companies raise capital and finance their operations?

Public limited companies, often referred to as publicly traded companies or corporations, have several ways to raise capital and finance their operations. These companies issue shares to the public and are listed on stock exchanges, allowing individuals and institutional investors to buy and sell their shares. Here are some of the primary methods public limited companies use to raise capital and finance their operations:

  1. Initial Public Offering (IPO): The most common way for a private company to become a public limited company is through an IPO. In an IPO, the company makes its shares available to the public for the first time. This process involves working with investment banks, underwriters, and regulatory authorities to set the initial share price and make the shares available for purchase by investors.
  2. Secondary Offering: After the IPO, public companies can raise additional capital through secondary offerings. These offerings can take the form of a follow-on offering (issuing more shares) or a rights offering (offering existing shareholders the right to purchase more shares at a discounted price).
  3. Debt Financing: Public limited companies can issue bonds or other debt securities to raise capital. Investors buy these bonds, and the company pays interest on them over time. Debt financing can be used for various purposes, such as expansion, acquisitions, or working capital needs.
  4. Retained Earnings: Public companies often retain a portion of their profits as retained earnings. These retained earnings can be reinvested into the company for various purposes, including research and development, capital expenditures, and debt repayment.
  5. Bank Loans and Credit Lines: Public companies can secure loans or lines of credit from banks and financial institutions. These loans provide short-term or long-term financing for various needs, such as operational expenses, working capital, or capital investments.
  6. Venture Capital and Private Equity: In some cases, public companies may still seek investments from venture capitalists or private equity firms to fund specific projects or initiatives. While less common than with private companies, this can be a source of capital for public companies.
  7. Sale of Assets: Public companies can sell non-core or underperforming assets to generate cash. This approach can help finance ongoing operations or strategic initiatives.
  8. Dividend Reinvestment Plans (DRIPs): Some public companies offer DRIPs to shareholders, allowing them to reinvest their dividends into additional shares of the company's stock instead of receiving cash dividends. This helps the company raise capital and expand its shareholder base.
  9. Joint Ventures and Partnerships: Public companies may form strategic partnerships or joint ventures with other companies, sharing resources, risks, and profits for specific projects or ventures.
  10. Convertible Securities: Public companies may issue convertible securities, such as convertible bonds or preferred stock, which can be converted into common shares at a predetermined conversion price. This allows the company to raise capital initially through debt or preferred equity and potentially convert it into common equity later.
  11. Grants and Subsidies: In certain industries or regions, public companies may be eligible for grants, subsidies, or incentives from government bodies or industry associations to support specific projects or initiatives.
22. How many days are needed to incorporate a public limited company?


The time required to incorporate a public limited company can vary significantly depending on the country in which you are registering the company and the efficiency of the relevant government authorities. Different countries have different procedures, requirements, and processing times for company registration.

In some countries, it is possible to incorporate a public limited company relatively quickly, often within a few days. For example, if you submit your application for company incorporation and business registration in Hong Kong online, it will typically be processed within 1 hour. For hard copy applications, the processing time usually extends to 4 days.

In others, it may take several weeks up to several months due to administrative processes, documentation requirements, and regulatory approvals. For instance, in most states in the USA, the processing time for this procedure typically ranges from 4 to 6 weeks, sometimes longer depending on numerous factors.

To get an accurate estimate of the time needed to incorporate a public limited company in a specific jurisdiction, you should consult the relevant government agency responsible for business registrations or seek assistance from legal and business professionals who are familiar with the local regulatory environment. Contact us at Offshore Company Corp to receive advice and company formation support from our experts now!

23. What Documents Are Needed For A Public Limited Company?

For a public limited company in Singapore, also known as a Public Company Limited by Shares (Pte. Ltd.), the following documents are typically required during the registration and ongoing compliance processes:

1. Memorandum and Articles of Association (MAA):

  • The MAA outlines the company's constitution, including its name, registered office address, objectives, share capital, internal governance rules, and other important provisions.
  • It must be prepared and signed by the initial shareholders or their representatives.

2. Company Incorporation Documents:

  • Completed and signed application form for company incorporation.
  • Identification documents of directors and shareholders (passport copy for foreigners or NRIC for Singaporeans).
  • Residential addresses of directors and shareholders.
  • Consent to Act as Directors and Statement of Non-Disqualification (signed by directors).
  • Share allotment and share transfer forms (if applicable).

3. Registered Office Address:

  • A valid registered office address in Singapore where official correspondence can be sent and maintained.
  • An official address must be provided during the registration process.

4. Directorship and Shareholding Information:

  • Details of directors and shareholders, including their full names, identification numbers, residential addresses, and nationality.
  • Information on the number and types of shares held by each shareholder.

5. Company Secretary:

  • Appointment of a qualified company secretary within six months of incorporation.
  • The company secretary must be a resident of Singapore and meet the requirements specified by the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority (ACRA).

6. Statutory Registers and Records:

  • Maintenance of statutory registers, including Register of Members, Register of Directors, Register of Charges, and Register of Secretaries.
  • Minutes of general meetings, board meetings, and resolutions passed by the company.

7. Financial Statements and Annual Returns:

  • Preparation and filing of annual financial statements in accordance with Singapore's Financial Reporting Standards (FRS).
  • Filing of annual returns with ACRA, including information on the company's financial position, shareholders, directors, and other statutory details.

8. Other Licenses and Permits:

  • Depending on the nature of the business activities, additional licenses or permits may be required from relevant government agencies or regulatory bodies.

It is advisable to seek professional advice from a corporate service provider or engage a qualified corporate secretary to ensure compliance with all necessary documentation requirements and ongoing regulatory obligations for a public limited company in Singapore.

24. Can A Public Limited Company Convert To A Private Limited Company Or Vice Versa?

Yes, it is possible for a public limited company (PLC) to convert to a private limited company (Pte. Ltd.) or vice versa in Singapore. The conversion process involves certain legal procedures and regulatory requirements. Here's an overview of the conversion process for both scenarios:

Conversion from Public Limited Company (PLC) to Private Limited Company (Pte. Ltd.):

1. Shareholder Approval:

  • The conversion must be approved by a special resolution passed by the shareholders of the PLC. A special resolution typically requires a majority vote of at least 75% of the shareholders present or represented by proxy at a general meeting.

2. Application to ACRA:

  • After obtaining shareholder approval, the PLC needs to submit an application to the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority (ACRA) to convert its status from a PLC to a Pte. Ltd.
  • The application should include the necessary forms, supporting documents, and filing fees as required by ACRA.

3. Compliance with Requirements:

  • The conversion process may involve fulfilling certain requirements, such as reducing the minimum number of shareholders from 50 (required for a PLC) to the minimum requirement of one (required for a Pte. Ltd.).
  • The company must also update its Memorandum and Articles of Association (MAA) to reflect the change in status.

4. Approval and Issuance of Certificate:

  • ACRA will review the application and supporting documents. If all requirements are met, ACRA will approve the conversion and issue a new Certificate of Incorporation reflecting the change in company status.

Conversion from Private Limited Company (Pte. Ltd.) to Public Limited Company (PLC):

1. Shareholder Approval and Compliance:

  • Similar to the conversion from PLC to Pte. Ltd., the conversion from Pte. Ltd. to PLC requires obtaining shareholder approval through a special resolution.
  • The company needs to ensure compliance with the requirements for a PLC, such as increasing the minimum number of shareholders to at least 50.

2. Application to ACRA:

  • After obtaining shareholder approval, the company must submit an application to ACRA to convert its status from a Pte. Ltd. to a PLC.
  • The application should include the necessary forms, supporting documents, and filing fees as required by ACRA.

3. Approval and Issuance of Certificate:

  • ACRA will review the application and supporting documents. If all requirements are met, ACRA will approve the conversion and issue a new Certificate of Incorporation reflecting the change in company status.

It is important to note that the conversion process may involve additional steps and considerations, such as compliance with the Companies Act and any specific requirements outlined by ACRA. It is advisable to engage a professional service provider or seek legal advice to ensure a smooth and compliant conversion process.

25. Is Private Limited Company The Same As Privately Held Company?

Yes, a private limited company and a privately held company refer to the same type of business entity. Both terms are used interchangeably to describe a company that is privately owned and not publicly traded on a stock exchange.

A private limited company, often denoted as "Pte. Ltd." or "Ltd.," is a legal structure that offers limited liability protection to its shareholders. It is a separate legal entity from its owners and can conduct business, enter into contracts, and own assets in its own name. The ownership of a private limited company is typically held by a small group of individuals, families, or other private entities.

The term "privately held company" is a broader term used to describe any company that is privately owned, regardless of its legal structure. It encompasses various types of entities, including private limited companies, partnerships, sole proprietorships, and other forms of privately owned businesses.

In summary, a private limited company is a specific legal structure of a privately held company, which is characterized by limited liability protection and shares held by a private group of owners.

26. What Does “PLC” Mean In A Company Name?

"PLC" stands for "Public Limited Company." It is a suffix that is added to the name of a company to indicate its legal structure as a publicly traded entity. A public limited company is a type of company that offers shares to the public and can be listed on a stock exchange.

In a PLC, ownership is divided into shares, and the shares are typically available for sale to the public. This means that the company can raise capital by issuing shares to investors. PLCs have more extensive reporting and disclosure requirements compared to private limited companies, as they are subject to regulatory oversight and must adhere to the rules and regulations of the stock exchange where they are listed.

The addition of "PLC" to a company name is a legal requirement in many jurisdictions to clearly distinguish it from other types of companies, such as private limited companies (Pte. Ltd.) or partnerships. It signals to investors and the public that the company is publicly traded and subject to certain regulatory obligations and transparency standards.

27. What are the 3 types of PLC?

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are essential components in industrial automation, designed to control and monitor machinery and processes efficiently. There are 3 main types of PLCs, each tailored to specific applications:

  • Compact PLCs: These are the smallest and most basic PLCs, ideal for small-scale automation tasks. They are cost-effective and easy to install, making them suitable for simple control operations. Compact PLCs are typically used in applications where there are few inputs and outputs, such as in small machines or standalone devices.
  • Modular PLCs: Modular PLCs are highly flexible and versatile, making them suitable for a wide range of industrial applications. They consist of a central processing unit (CPU) and various modules for input and output expansion, communication, and special functions. Engineers can customize these PLCs by adding or removing modules, making them adaptable to complex processes and larger-scale systems.
  • Rack-Mount PLCs: Rack-mount PLCs are designed for large-scale industrial processes that require extensive input and output capabilities. These PLCs are mounted on racks and can accommodate numerous input and output modules. They are known for their high processing power, reliability, and robustness, making them suitable for applications in industries like automotive manufacturing, petrochemical plants, and power generation facilities.

The choice of PLC type depends on the specific automation requirements of a project. Compact PLCs are cost-effective for small tasks, while modular PLCs offer flexibility and scalability for medium-sized projects. Rack-mount PLCs are reserved for large, complex industrial processes that demand a high level of control and reliability. Understanding these three types of PLCs allows engineers and automation professionals to select the most appropriate solution to meet their automation needs, ensuring efficient and reliable control of machinery and processes in diverse industrial settings.

28. What is the difference between an international company and a multinational company?

The terms "international company" and "multinational company" are often used interchangeably, but they have distinct differences in their scope, operations, and organizational structures.

1. International Company:

  • An international company primarily conducts business operations in multiple countries but typically focuses on exporting its products or services from its home country to international markets.
  • It often maintains a centralized organizational structure, with the core functions such as production, research, and development located in the home country.
  • International companies may adapt their products or services to suit local markets, but the core decision-making and strategic control remain centralized.
  • Their primary objective is to expand their presence in foreign markets while primarily maintaining their domestic identity and operational control.

2. Multinational Company (MNC):

  • A multinational company is more decentralized in nature and has a significant presence in multiple countries where it operates. It has subsidiaries or affiliates in different countries, each with a degree of autonomy.
  • MNCs distribute decision-making and operational control across various regions to adapt to local market conditions, regulatory requirements, and customer preferences.
  • They often invest heavily in local research and development, production facilities, and marketing to cater to specific regional needs.
  • The primary goal of MNCs is to establish a global presence while simultaneously integrating into local cultures and markets.

In summary, the key difference lies in the degree of centralization and decentralization within their organizational structures. International companies tend to centralize operations in their home country and focus on exporting, while multinational companies disperse their operations across multiple countries, adapting and integrating into local markets. The choice between these two approaches depends on factors like the company's global strategy, industry, and the level of localization required to succeed in foreign markets.

29. What is the difference between an LLC and a Corporation?

Limited Liability Companies (LLCs) and corporations are both popular business structures that offer distinct advantages and disadvantages. Understanding the differences betweenan LLC and a Corporationcan help entrepreneurs and business owners make informed decisions about which structure suits their needs best.

1. Legal Structure:

A corporation is an autonomous legal entity distinct from its proprietors, who are the shareholders. It can sue or be sued own assets, and enter into contracts in its own name.

An LLC is a versatile business framework that melds features from both a partnership and a corporation. It provides limited liability to its members (owners) while allowing them to manage the company or designate managers to do so.

2. Ownership:

Corporations release shares of stock, symbolizing ownership stakes in the company. The board of directors, responsible for crucial decision-making, is chosen by the shareholders.

LLCs have members who own the company. Management can be structured in various ways, including member-managed or manager-managed, depending on the LLC's operating agreement.

3. Taxation:

Corporations may be subject to double taxation, where the corporation pays taxes on its profits, and shareholders pay taxes on dividends received. However, some corporations can elect S-corporation status to avoid double taxation.

LLCs are typically pass-through entities for tax purposes. This means that business profits and losses are passed through to the member's personal tax returns, avoiding double taxation.

4. Limited Liability:

Limited liability protection is afforded to owners by both corporations and LLCs. This means that in most cases, personal assets are shielded from business debts and liabilities. However, piercing the corporate veil or disregarding the LLC's separate legal identity can negate this protection.

5. Formalities:

Corporations often have more stringent formalities, including regular board meetings, record-keeping, and compliance requirements. LLCs generally have fewer formalities, offering greater flexibility in management and record-keeping.

The choice between an LLC and a corporation depends on factors such as the business's size, management structure, tax considerations, and long-term goals. Consulting with legal and financial professionals is advisable when making this important decision to ensure it aligns with the specific needs and objectives of the business.

30. What is the difference between an LLC, a partnership, and a corporation?

A Limited Liability Company (LLC), a partnership, and a corporation are three distinct business structures, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Understanding the differences between an LLC, a partnership, and a corporation is crucial for entrepreneurs and business owners when choosing the most suitable structure for their ventures.

1. Limited Liability Company (LLC):

  • An LLC combines elements of partnerships and corporations, offering a flexible business structure.
  • It provides limited liability protection to its members (owners), shielding their personal assets from business debts and lawsuits.
  • LLCs are typically pass-through entities for tax purposes, meaning profits and losses are reported on the members' personal tax returns, avoiding double taxation.
  • They have fewer formal requirements compared to corporations, offering greater operational flexibility.
  • Management can be structured as member-managed (members make operational decisions) or manager-managed (appointed managers make decisions).

2. Partnership:

  • A partnership is a business structure where two or more individuals or entities share ownership and manage the business together.
  • Partnerships offer simplicity and ease of formation, making them suitable for small businesses and professional practices.
  • Partnerships do not provide limited liability protection, exposing partners' personal assets to business liabilities.
  • There are two main types: general partnerships (equal sharing of management and liability) and limited partnerships (with both general and limited partners, where limited partners have limited liability but limited control).

3. Corporation:

  • A corporation is a separate legal entity from its shareholders, providing strong limited liability protection.
  • It issues shares of stock representing ownership, allowing for the sale of ownership interests.
  • Corporations can be subject to double taxation, as they pay taxes on profits, and shareholders pay taxes on dividends received.
  • They have stricter formalities, including regular board meetings, record-keeping, and compliance requirements.
  • Corporations are often chosen for larger businesses seeking to raise capital through stock offerings.

The choice between these structures depends on factors like liability protection, taxation, management preferences, and long-term business goals. Consulting with legal and financial professionals is advisable to make an informed decision that aligns with the specific needs and objectives of the business.

31. What is the difference between domestic LLC and foreign LLC?

A Limited Liability Company (LLC) is a business structure that offers limited liability protection to its owners (members) while providing flexibility in terms of management and taxation. The difference between a domestic LLC and a foreign LLC lies in where the LLC is formed and where it conducts its business.

1. Domestic LLC:

  • A domestic LLC is formed and operates within the state where it is initially registered.
  • It is considered a "local" business within that state, and its primary operations and management are within the state where it was formed.
  • The members and managers of a domestic LLC typically reside or operate within the state of formation.
  • It must adhere to the laws and regulations of the state in which it is registered, including annual reporting and tax requirements.

2. Foreign LLC:

  • A foreign LLC is one that is formed in one state (the "home state") but conducts business in another state (the "foreign state").
  • "Conducting business" in a foreign state can include having physical locations, employees, customers, or any significant presence or operations within that state.
  • To legally operate in a foreign state, the LLC must register with the appropriate state authorities in the foreign state and obtain a certificate of authority or a similar document. This process is often referred to as foreign qualification.
  • Once foreign qualified, the LLC is subject to the laws and regulations of both its home state and the foreign state where it conducts business.
  • Foreign LLCs may also be required to pay state taxes, file annual reports, and maintain a registered agent in the foreign state.

It's important to note that the requirements for domestic and foreign LLCs can vary significantly from state to state in the United States. Therefore, it's essential to consult with legal and tax professionals or the relevant state agencies to ensure compliance with all applicable laws and regulations when forming and operating an LLC, whether it's domestic or foreign. Additionally, the term "foreign" in this context refers to doing business in a different state, not in a different country. If you want to operate an LLC in a different country, you would typically need to establish a separate legal entity in that country.

32. Why should I use Offshore Company Corp to open an offshore company?
  1. Offshore Company Corp has more than 10 years’ experience in offshore consultancy. During this time we have been able to develop a network of offshore service providers that remains unparalleled.
  2. We provide tailor-made advice to our clients, fully integrating the latest laws.
  3. We are one of the most competitive offshore service providers.
  4. We have achieved many awards and certificates. See all Our Awards and Licenses

For further information, please read "Our Guarantees" section.

Just Order - We Do All For You

33. What is an offshore company?

First and foremost, it is essential to define the term Offshore. Offshore relates to managing, registering, conducting, or operating in a foreign country, often with financial, legal and tax benefits. 

An offshore company has a variety of uses and benefits for clients wishing to engage in international financial trade and investment activities. Depending on the specific offshore jurisdiction, an offshore company may have the following features and advantages: Ease of Incorporation, Minimal Fees, No Foreign Exchange Controls, High Confidentiality, Tax Benefits.

34. Which jurisdiction should I choose for my company?

Offshore Jurisdictions not only have some aspects of tax benefits, they are also good places to attract investors because of factors such as stable politics, good reputation and sophisticated corporate law.

Each offshore jurisdiction has its separate benefits that can meet customers’ strategic demands. OCC’s customer service team are trained to support clients to find out the applicable tax havens for their business.

We carefully list the service countries on our website, from the lower-fee countries to higher ones (See more: Company Registration Fees). Although there is some difference in fees, all of the jurisdictions guarantee their confidentiality and integrity to investors. For good offshore jurisdictions with high-ranking currencies, clients will be introduced to Hong Kong and Singapore (See more: Hong Kong offshore company formation and Singapore offshore company formation), which are well placed to attract businessmen due to their significant economical and tax benefits.

35. Who should use an offshore company?

An offshore company may be of interest to a great number of people, and it may be used for various activities.


Creating an offshore company allows you to begin an activity without having to deal with setting up a complicated infrastructure. An offshore company allows you to quickly create a stable structure with a simple administration and enjoy all the benefits of the offshore jurisdiction.

Commerce over the internet (e-commerce)

Internet traders can use an offshore company to maintain a domain name and to manage internet sites. An offshore company might be ideal for people whose business is on the internet. You might choose to incorporate the registered office of your company in an offshore jurisdiction to take advantage of the various benefits offered by these jurisdictions.


You can also carry on your consultancy or counselling business through an offshore company. You will find it easier to manage your company, while being registered in a stable jurisdiction and benefiting from all the strengths of that jurisdiction.

International business

International commerce can be carried out through an offshore company. It will handle purchases and sales operations. One IBC can also obtain a VAT number for companies that we incorporate in Cyprus or incorporate in the United Kingdom.

Holding intellectual property rights

Any kind of intellectual property right (a patent or trademark) may be registered in the name of an offshore company. The company may also buy or sell this type of right. It may also grant rights of use to third parties in return for payments.

Also read: Intellectual property services

For the custody of movable and immovable property

Offshore companies are used to hold both movable property (such as yachts) and immovable property (such as houses and buildings). In addition to confidentiality, the benefits and advantages they offer include exemption from certain types of taxes (e.g. inheritance tax). It should be noted, however, that some countries do not allow the acquisition of movable/immovable property through offshore structures and therefore those wishing to form an offshore structure are advised to check with a competent authority before proceeding.

For inheritance purposes

An offshore firm that always stays afloat (provided all costs associated with running it are paid) may, in some countries, be used as a means of avoiding inheritance-tax laws. With a view to minimising inheritance-tax liability, the offshore structure may also be combined with a trust or a foundation.


Offshore companies are very often used for share dealing or foreign-exchange transactions. The main reasons being the anonymous nature of the transaction (the account can be opened under a company name).

You are free to make international money transfers under your Offshore Company. We wish to make you aware that you ought to liaise with a tax advisor in your country of residence before setting up an offshore company.

36. Do I have to pay taxes on profit or interest earned by my offshore company?


Most of the jurisdictions we work with do not impose taxes on profits made or interest earned by offshore company. Some, like Hong Kong or Delaware, only tax profits made within the jurisdiction, whereas Cyprus charges a 10% flat tax.

See more:

While a company may not be subject to tax reporting to its local authorities, from a personal standpoint it mustn’t relieve you from seeking counsel from a tax advisor in your country of residence in order to assess the extent of your own obligations, if any.


37. When do I have to pay my company's yearly fees (Time of renewal)?

You will be asked to settle the yearly fees prior to each anniversary of your company, not at the end of each calendar year. To avoid any last minute rush, we will send you a renewal invitation before the anniversary.

See more: Company Renewal Fee

38. Can the same person be a shareholder of the company and act as its director at the same time?

Yes. In most jurisdictions it is possible (and common) that the same person acts as shareholder and director of the company.

39. What is the difference between a shareholder and a director?

The shareholder is the person who owns the company through a share certificate. A company can be owned by one or several shareholders. The shareholder can be an individual or a company.

The director is the person responsible for the management of the company. He will sign any business contracts, account opening forms etc. Directors are elected by the shareholders. A company can have one or several directors. The director can be an individual or a company.

See more: Nominee Director and Shareholder Services

40. What is a shelf company?

Shelf companies are corporate entities that have been established by a provider who holds the company until a purchaser is found. Post transaction, the ownership of the company transfers from the provider to the purchaser, who then commences trading activity under the company name. The benefits of purchasing a shelf company include:

  • reduction in the time it would take to create a new corporation;
  • enables contract bidding (some jurisdictions require a fixed business age to allow this function); and
  • the appearance of corporate longevity.

Note: shelf companies are normally more expensive than newly incorporated companies because of their age.

Read more: 

41. Can I choose the name of my company?

Yes, It is even recommended that you do so. On the application form you are asked to input three company names, in order of your preference. We will then check with the Company Registry of the offshore jurisdiction if those names are available for incorporation.

Read more: 

42. Does my company have to provide accounts to any tax authority?

No, generally not. This is one of the main advantages of offshore companies.

However, in a few select jurisdictions, such as Hong Kong, Cyprus and the UK, it is indeed mandatory for companies to produce yearly accounts, to have them audited and, in some cases, to pay taxes (please refer to our jurisdiction comparison table).

While a company may not be subject to tax reporting to the relevant authorities, from a personal standpoint it must not relieve you from seeking counsel from a tax advisor in your country of residence in order to assess the extent of your own obligations, if any.

Read more:

43. How long will it take for me to receive my corporate documents?

Every jurisdiction has its own incorporation timeframe. Please refer to our jurisdiction comparison table. Once the company has been incorporated, it will generally take about two to six days for the corporate documents to reach you.

Read more: 

44. How can I settle my company fees?

You can either pay by Paypal, credit card/ debit card or wire transfer.

Paypal, credit card/ debit card

Payment Guidelines

45. Why are your fees lower than those of your competitors?

Having our own offices or partners in the jurisdictions where we provide our services, we are able to offer straight-forward and competitive prices, thus we can avoid any intermediaries.

46. What are the benefits of the apostille and which countries recognise apostille certificates?

Benefits of the apostille

With the Hague Convention, the whole legalisation process has been deeply simplified by the delivery of a standard certificate entitled “apostille”. Authorities of the state where the document was issued must place the certificate on it. It will be dated, numbered and registered. This makes finalising the verification and registration through the authorities who forwarded the certificate much easier.

List of countries which recognise apostille certificates

The Hague Convention currently has over 60 countries as members. Furthermore, many others will also recognise an apostille certificate.

  • Albania, Andorra, Antigua & Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan
  • Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria
  • Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic
  • Dominica
  • El Salvador
  • Fiji, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France
  • Germany, Greece, Grenada, Guyana
  • Honduras, Hong Kong (SAR), Hungary
  • Ireland, Israel, Italy
  • Japan
  • Kazakhstan, Kiribati
  • Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg
  • Macau (SAR), Malawi, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco
  • Netherlands (including Aruba and Netherlands Antilles), New Zealand, Niue, Norway
  • Panama, Portugal (including Madeira)
  • Romania, Russian Federation
  • Samoa, Serbia and Montenegro, San Marino, Seychelles, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain (including the Canary Islands), Sri Lanka, St Kitts & Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent & the Grenadines, Surinam, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland
  • Tonga, Trinidad & Tobago, Turkey, Tuvalu
  • Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America (including Puerto Rico)
  • Vanuatu, Venezuela
  • Yugoslavia

Other countries

The countries listed below have approved the apostille certificate as proof of legalisation. Although it is likely to be accepted most of the time, a consultation with the legal entity supposed to receive it is recommended.

  • Afars and the Issas, Andorra, Angola, Anguilla, Aruba
  • Bermuda, Brazil, British Antarctic Territory, British Virgin Islands
  • Canada, Cayman Islands, Chile, China, Comoros Islands
  • Denmark, Djibouti
  • Egypt, Estonia
  • Falkland Islands, French Guiana, French Polynesia
  • Georgia, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Guernsey (Bailiwick of), Guyana
  • Iceland
  • Jersey, Jordan
  • Malaysia, Martinique, Montserrat , Morocco, Mozambique
  • New Caledonia
  • Sri Lanka, St Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, St Helena, St Pierre and Miquelon
  • Turks and Caicos
  • Virgin Islands
  • Wallis and Futuna

Also read:

47. What is the DUNS number for my company & how to get it?

The DUNS number is a unique nine-digit number that identifies business entities on a location-specific basis. Assigned and maintained by Dun & Bradstreet (D&B), the DUNS number is widely used as a standard business identifier.

Your DUNS number will be used to check the identity and legal-entity status of your organisation as part of our enrolment-verification process, especially relating to internet services, game/app development (like SSL), Trust Seal on your website or your Apple/Google apps development account – even with applications to credit and financing institutions.

Your DUNS number will be directly linked to your company’s credit file and will play an important role in your company’s search for credit and financing. With a DUNS number and business-credit report, lenders, suppliers and creditors will now be better able to assess the creditworthiness of your business.

What do I need to get my DUNS number?

When registering for your DUNS number, you will need the following to hand.

  • Legal name
  • Headquarters name and address for your business
  • Doing Business As (DBA) or other name by which your business is commonly known
  • Physical address, city, state and ZIP code
  • Mailing address (if different from headquarters or physical address)
  • Telephone number
  • Contact name and title
  • Number of employees at your physical address

With Offshore Company Corp services, we can support you with everything. Your DUNS number can be issued within 2-5 working days and for a fee from US$190, depending on the jurisdiction your company is registered in.

Read more: 

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About Us

We are always proud of being an experienced Financial and Corporate Services provider in the international market. We provide the best and most competitive value to you as valued customers to transform your goals into a solution with a clear action plan. Our Solution, Your Success.